From The Past to the Present
TURKISH – ARMENIAN RELATIONS
1064 BEFORE TURKISH – ERMENİ RELA
TIONS Although some turks entered Anatolia as Muslim Turks with the process that began with 1064-1070, turkish migration to the region was long before 1064, proto turkish reality to one side, about 500 years ago The Turks began and came to Anatolia at that time and began to enter Islam when they met Anatolian Islam. As such, some Turks naturally entered the monotheistic religions of the period from the monotheistic religions of the period to Judaism and Islam. Some christian Turks eventually acquired new identities within the Christian Communities, while some of them entered the sects of which the Armenians belonged, and in the meantime, gregoryenism. The first contacts of both societies during identification periods were probably in anatolian geography during this period. The contacts of the Gregorian tribe of Hayk and kıpçak Turks, which are increasingly armenian, were in the Caucasus at the same time. The historical geographies of the Coptic Turks were covered by today’s Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and northeastern Anatolia. While the Kıpçak Turks joined with the Oguz in Anatolia and Azerbaijan, they were largely melted among Georgians and Armenians in Georgia and Armenia.
1064 – 1878 TURKISH – ERMENI RELATIO
NS Armenians who lived under roman and Byzantine lands and dominance before, continued their existence over the Seljuk and Ottoman lands and under their rule, with the Turks becoming hegemonic forces in Anatolia. they’ve made me do it. They even helped the Turks conquer Anatolia. During this period, turks and Armenians lived together, side by side and friendly together. The Armenians were influenced by Turkish culture and
began to speak Turkish voluntarily. In fact, the Byzantines were feeding antipathy because of their denomination against the Armenians who were Gregorian. But at the root of their hostility was the armenians’ betrayals against them. That’s why the Byzantines looked after the Armenians with hatred and hatred for a long time, and they were against them. This continued until the Armenians entered seljuk rule. It can be argued that if the Armenians had not entered the Seljuk rule, they would not have been able to protect their religion and culture, and naturally they would not have made it to this day. Because iv. In the 19th century, the mother tongue of armenians was forbidden, and the rights of spiritual chiefs over the nation were not recognized, especially after the 452 Chalcedoine (Kadikoy) assembly meeting, to remove the contradictions in the beliefs of the Armenians, They exiled the church’s influence storing them to eliminate their feelings of nationality and, as the permanent policy of Byantium, they always took the Armenians out of their region. T
he turkish-Islamic philosophy’s approach to non-Muslims took place within the framework of tolerance. The Turks made an agreement called “embezzlement” that guarantees their rights and laws with the non-Muslim people in the regions they conquered, and named them tacitly. The establishme
nt, development of the Ottoman Empire and the destruction of Byken satirical, especially as a result of the conquest of Istanbul, opened a new era for armenians that they did not live in any period of their history, and all kinds of religious, political, social, economic and cultural The era of peace, trust, peace and prosperity began. A
s it is known, the Ottoman Empire is a Turkish state with Islamic origin and a multinational state. There is room for other nations as well as Turks within this multinational structure. Indeed, Osman Bey, the first Ottoman sultan, allowed armenians to be organized as a separate community in Anatolia to protect them from the persecution of Byzantium, and the first Armenian religious center in Western Anatolia was established in Kutahya. Upon the construction of Bursa as the capital, this religious center moved from Kutahya to Bursa, then the Armenian religious leader hovakim in Bursa was brought to Istanbul in 1461 by the conquest of Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmet, and with the edict of Fatih, he was brought to Istanbul. The Armenian Patriarchate was established. Immediately after this development, Armenian migrations from Iran, the Caucasus, the Balkans, Crimea, Eastern and Central Anatolia to Istanbul began. Thus, the Ottoman Empire became a center of attraction for armenians. This attitud
e of the Ottoman empire against the Armenians within the Ottoman Empire contributed significantly to the survival and development of the Armenian community and church. In fact, it can be said that the development of the Armenian community – including the Ottoman Empire and its church – has been in parallel. The Ottoman Empire organized the Gregorian Armenians under the name of “nation” and left them to the administration of their religious leaders. Fatih Sultan Mehmet, in his decree that the Patriarch, who founded the Armenian Patriarchate, ruled that all Armenians living in the empire were both spiritual and spiritual leaders. A
rmenians have also been given the opportunity to establish foundations in order to have the necessary financial facilities to carry out religion, culture, education and charity, and even the Ottoman administration has helped if their own financial power is not sufficient, completed its shortcomings and provided financial support to Armen
ian institutions. The Armenian community has successfully developed and prosperously by successfully using the rights and privileges granted to it, and also gained the trust of the Ottoman administration by adopting turkish-Ottoman culture, lifestyle and management. Thanks to this trust, they have reached important places in public services as well as in busin
ess life. Ottoman history records 29 Pasha, 22 Ministers, 33 Deputies, 7 Ambassadors, 11 Consul Generals and Consuls, 11 University Faculty Members, and 41 high-ranking officers. Among the ministries made by the Armenians, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, Trade and Mail have been very important and key positions. Thus, the Armenians, especially the Turks, with all elements of the Empire XIX. They lived in peace and security until the end of the 19th century, and did not encounter any complaints or problems with the Ottoman administration.
However, from time to time, they have fallen into a dispute among themselves. Armenians from Anatolia and Crimea to Istanbul before and after the conquest of Istanbul, and armenians from Iran and the Caucasus called “Oriental” or “Provincial” did not fight because of the choice of Patriarch, each other ottoman they complained to the administration and tried to get the administration to intervene in their favor. The Ottoman administration remained persistently neutral in the face of Armenian groups and internal problems. After the Armenians won this struggle, the Patriarchate began to bring in people who could not be spiritual, and the conflict of position and title became bloody fights from time to time. At this stage, the Ottomans intervened and prevented the Armenians from breaking each other. Sectarian quarrels hav
e been another factor that has pitted Armenians against each other, especially as a result of foreign interventions, the spread of Catholicism and Protestantism among Armenians has provoked great infial in Gregorian Armenians and The Gregorian Armenians, Ottoman they asked for this situation to be prevented by applying to the management of the management. When the Ottoman government did not intervene in this development, which the Armenians considered internal problems, bloody fights were seen again and were excommunicated by the Patriarchs named Chuhajiyan and Tahtacıyan, who accepted Protestantism. Then there were clashes between Catholics about whether or not to be affiliated with the Vatican, the Pope excommunicated Armenians who were not affiliated with the Vatican, and the Ottoman administration intervened in the situation and reconciled these two Catholic groups in 1888.
States That Played A Role in the Emergence of the Armenian Conflic
t (1800 -1890)”Whoever engages in reforms in a country, he doesn’t want to
reform that empire, but he wants to destro
y it.” German Ambassador marschall in Istanbul (1897)
XIX. From the second half of the 20th century, the Armenian problem is started to be mentioned. Those seeking a start to the Armenian problem carry it to the 1856 Islahat Edict or the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877 – 1878, followed by the Treaty of Ayastefanos and the Berlin Conference. In fact, these approaches are not wrong. However, linking the issue to the Islahat Edict or the Berlin Conference without examining the infrastructure of moving the issue to 1856 or 1877 – 1878 without explaining the factors that cause it leaves the issue quite infertile. In the eme
rgence of the Armenian problem, the developments in the world’s law have had a significant impact and contribution. One of them is colonialism, which is very parallel to the Industrial Revolution. Another event is the French phenomenon of old shiphood, which has affected the whole world and is a phenomenon of nationalism that develops in parallel. The Armenians saw that minorities within the Ottoman Empire rebelled one by one, and that they had achieved their independence and independence. As a result of these events, the idea that they can take such a movement has arisen. One of t
he factors came in the context of religious ideology. In ottoman society, only gregorian Armenians were present in the ottoman society, but as a result of the work of France, a Catholic Armenian community and subsequent armenian catholic church, the work of British and American missionaries, and the British Government’s work The Armenian Protestant Church was revealed by the pressure.
Iii. A. 1. When the french ‘s role in the emergence o
f the Arme
nian Conflict (1800-1890) is examined in Turkey, almost all of them are portrayed as Russia, the lead actor in the emergence of the problem. Russia, however, is just one of the effects of the Armenian uprising14. In addition to Russia, France, which is propaganda of Catholicism among Armenians, has been a man of catholicism. The British, who are trying to place Protestantism on armenians for their interests; States such as the United States and Germany have had significant implications to ignore the issue directly or indirectly. These states took advantage of the events that took advantage of the events that took off after 1840 and began to strengthen their influence in the Ottoman Empire in order to protect those who were from their de
nominations. XVI against minorities in Anatolia, especially armenians. France, which has been interested since the 19th century and began sending travelers to Turkey from 1548 onwards, has spent centuries working hard, especially on Armenians, to create a Catholic ally for its interests in the east, and has achieved its goal. . He made Russia accept it. Thus, it was decided that the new treaty would be made in
Berlin. The Ottoman Empire hoped that in Berlin, Britain would support and help it. England had a very good assessment of the bad conditions that Babiâli was in. For this reason, he applied for a threat route at the conference in Berlin and managed to take Cyprus temporarily from Bâbıâlî. As a matter of fact, it was signed on June 4, 1878 and on July 15, 1878, ii. According to the treaty ratified by Abdulhamit, the Ottoman Empire would make a reclamation for the Armenians in Eastern Anatolia, which it would decide with Britain. He would be able to settle on the island of Cyprus until this danger was lifted to prevent the Russian threat in Eastern Anatolia, England. So England secured the shortest road to India. As it tu
rns out, Britain has moved to protect its own interests, not the Armenians, and settled in Cyprus by signing the Treaty of Cyprus. Indeed, the Eastern Anatolia Region and trabzon – Erzurum – Eastern Bayezid route – the trade road that delivered the Black Sea to Iran – was a great importance for Britain. Armenian traders settled in Manchester since the 1840s, marketing cotton fabrics built on the British islands to Iran and Turkestan via the road mentioned above. Cotton stocks, which have been on the rise in the UK since the 1870s, tended to create a major economic crisis for The UK. If these stocks did not melt and the market was not found for the new faith, it was inevitable that many factories would close, bankruptcies would follow each other, and that a large unemployment rate would emerge in the UK and be in trouble for the state. The Black Sea was the only way for the transportation of iranian routes stocks. The British helped the Armenian merchants in Eastern Anatolia with the aim of accelerating shipments, and they saw a lot of benefits. That’s why Britain was the 19th president of the Treaty of Ayastefanos, who put the road under russian control. and in the 20th century. and the 6th Edition of the Berlin Conference. With article, it has allowed these places to pass back to the Ottoman Empire. Fu
rthermore, the Treaty of Ayastefanos was the 16th president of the Armenians. article 61 at the Berlin Conference. substance. With this amended article, the Ottoman State would rehabilitate, provide public order and oversee the occasional execution of the measures it took in the relevant states.
1878 -1890 TURK – ERMENİ RELATI
ONSArmenians have achieved great political benefits with the Berlin Conference and have learned some lessons to consider in their future strategy. First of all, 61st century. “Armenian Issue” was on the agenda of international political politics. The second important point is that during this period, the Armenians understood that they would not be able to achieve their ambitions without Th
e Support of England. In fact, Britain had significant financial interests in adopting the Armenian Issue. Here, Britain took the initiative, preventing eastern Anatolia from “Balkanization” by Russia and the disruption of its anatomy to its population in the Middle East. In other words, London began to think that Babiâli alone could not stand up to Russian visions, but that an Armenian state under his own auspices could form a more robust set against Petsburg’s aggression. However, according to London, it was not true that Russia was completely isolated from the Armenian Issue. If the Russian colonialism, which realised it had hit the rock in the Near East, turned its eyes to search for opportunities to spread in the Far East, then Britain’s monopoly on influence over China could be compromised. That’s why keeping Russia busy with the Ottoman country under the pretext of Armenian reclamation and keeping its attention in Eastern Anatolia was a British policy that was desired during that period (in the 1890s). Anyway, it wouldn’t be too difficult for a Britain, a diplomatic expert, to rein in Russia on international platforms where the issue of reclamation will be discussed. As long as Babiâli is not alone in confronting Russia. Ru
ssia, however, was quick to recognize Britain’s trap. The purpose of St. Petersburg was to gather the fruits of a successful war and bring the annexation of Eastern Anatolia to an end. In an authorized word, Russia wanted a “Armenia without Armenian”. But Berlin also reminded me that this could not happen. At the same time, “Armenian Reclamation” could bring dangerous developments for Russia. So that a mukhtaria to the Armenians could inspire The Armenians of Russia’s own nationality to feed similar ambitions. In fact, the Caucasian Armenians could seek the opportunity to cooperate with anatolian Armenians. In addition, when Russia emerged in Bulgaria, which had created great hopes in the Balkans, it knew how the British game had turned itself first and created a buffer to curb its spread. When Russia backed down, the “Armenian Issue” would fall into Britain’s lap. Sultan II of the time. Abdulhamit had promised to reform, but resisted implementing these bills. However, in 1894, in order to conduct on-site inspections of the Consul general of Van in England, armenian committeeists who knew the opportunity to travel to the areas where the Armenians were concentrated, the reclamation talks, At the initiative of London, it has also entered international political platforms. Around this time, demonstrations were held in favor of Armenians in various cities of Europe. During this period, the broadcasting power of Armenians in foreign countries was at a level that no minority group could have. British newspapers in Turkey journalists, newspapers, the so-called Armenian case to send their writings, they were not escaping, they were deliberately magnifying a small incident in their writing60. Not long after, Britain invited Babiâli to meet the obligations of the Treaty of Berlin. Not only that, they tried to get the reclamation proposals they prepared first to the European community and then dictate to Babiâli. When the Sultan resisted the animosity of implementing the reclamations, Britain began to threaten to implement the work in the Ottoman empire, although Britain’s intention here seems to create a European harmony that has taken shape in Eastern Anatolia, in reality it is actually de facto he wanted to expose an Armenian community under his own auspices. However, Britain’s desire was not supported by great powers. Britain alone brought its navy to the Dardanelles as a last resort, but both the differences between the Great Powers and the Second World War. Britain, who lost the first round in 1895 (
1895), will be more cautious in their policies after that. The fear of Germany, which became increasingly powerful after 1895, has been the most important factor that brought Russia and Britain closer together. For a long time, England was ready for the ottoman empire’s instalment. In fact, he conveyed this idea to Russia on several occasions. The two states, which prefer to resolve their conflicts in the Far East through conciliatory means, ended their rapprochement with a treaty in 1907. From now on, the two states have acted together in the interventions of the Ottoman Empire in the armenian reclamations. This re
settlement between Russia and Britain has brought the Armenian issue to an inter-state government. The Armenians, who were encouraged by this situation, also took action to establish revolutionary Armenian parties and associations at home and abroad.
1890 -1896 TURKISH – ERMENİ RELATIONS
Armenian Terrorist Incidents and Armenian Uprisings (18
90-1896)Armenians have launched many rebellions through terrorist organizations they have formed in order to establish an Armenian State within turkish ground. Here are the important ones of these riots and terrorist incidents:
- Motherland Defenders Event (December 8, 1882),
- Clash with armenakan gangs (May 1889),
- Musa Bey Event (August 1889),
- Erzurum Rebellion (June 20, 1890),
- Kumkapi Nümayi (July 15, 1890),
- Merzifon, Kayseri, Yozgat Events (1892 – 1893),
- First Sasun Rebellion (August 1894),
- Zeytun (Suleymani) Rebellion (1—6 September 1895),
- Divriği (Sivas) Rebellion (September 29, 1895),
- Babıâli Event (September 30, 1895),
- Trabzon Rebellion (October 2, 1895),
- Eğin (Mamuratü’l – Aziz) Rebellion (October 6, 1895),
- Develi (Kayseri) Rebellion (October 7, 1895),
- Akhisar (Izmit) Rebellion (October 9, 1895),
- Erzincan (Erzurum) Rebellion (October 21, 1895),
- Gumushane (Trabzon) Rebellion (October 25, 1895),
- Bitlis Rebellion (October 25, 1895),
- Bayburt (Erzurum) Rebellion (October 26, 1895),
- Maraş (Aleppo) Rebellion (October 27, 1895),
- Urfa (Aleppo) Rebellion (October 29, 1895),
- Erzurum Rebellion (October 30, 1895),
- Diyarbakir Rebellion ( November 2, 1895),
- Siverek (Diyarbakir) Rebellion (November 2, 1895),
- Malatya (Mamuratü’l- Aziz) Rebellion (November 4, 1895),
- Harput (Mamuratü’l- Aziz) Rebellion (November 7, 1895),
- Arapkir (Mamuratü’l- Aziz) Rebellion (November 9, 1895),
- Sivas Rebellion (November 15, 1895),
- Merzifon (Sivas) Rebellion (November 15, 1895),
- Aytab (Aleppo) Rebellion (November 16, 1895),
- Maraş (Aleppo) Rebellion (November 18, 1895),
- Mus (Bitlis) Rebellion (November 22, 1895),
- Kayseri (Ankara) Rebellion (3 December 1895),
- Yozgat (Ankara) Rebellion (3 December 1895),
- Zeytun Rebellion (1895 – 1896),
- First Van Rebellion (June 2, 1896),
- Ottoman Bank Raid (July 14, 1896),
- Second Sasun Rebellion (July 1897),
- Assassination of Sultan Abdulhamid (Assassinated) (July 21, 1905),
- Adana Rebellion (April 14, 1909).
As it can be seen, until 1897 alone, nearly forty Armenian riots and precautions were detected. As understood by their history, all rebellions have increased rapidly after the armenian committees began to operate. “The Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia Hovhannes Katchaznuni, which will be established later, said: “… committees have provided the strength of the gangs and actively participated in the operation against Turkey… We lost the power of truth to reasoning and were immersed in our dreams…” These committees have revolted Armenians with kindness or force, as he admitted.
1896 -1914 TURKISH – ERMENİ RELATIONS
The Armenian rebellion and measure movements given above were introduced by Armenian committees as “the slaughter of Armenians by the Turks” and reflected in western countries, the Christian public in this way, and the big noise removed. For this purpose, without immediately avoiding any misinformation, events were falsified and presented to the world public. Christian missionaries working in many parts of Anatolia, embassies in Istanbul and consulates in Anatolia played a major role in the transmission and adoption of this propaganda to the Western public. When all this included the western press’s parallel publications, the Christian public began to embrace the messages of Armenians that had nothing to do with the facts. In fact, the policies of their own states also required the adoption of these messages. Moreover, according to the West, it was “a conflict between Christians and Muslims, and wild Muslims slaughtered innocent Christians.” So there was only one job to do, and it was to support and patronize Christian Armenians against Muslims. That’s really how it was done during this period. H
owever, the fact of the issue is that this is not the case, and under this propaganda of armenian committees, it is fixed with documents aimed at forcing large states to intervene with guns against the Ottomans. The reason for the
Armenian uprising is the claim that they are neither persecuted nor subjected to reclamation or oppression. The reason for the rebellion is that Westerners and Russia want to break up the Ottoman Empire in cooperation with Armenian committees and churches. In the face of these rebellions, the Ottoman Empire did what every state would do and sent force on the rebels who rebelled. However, as described above, the suppression of each rebellion has been presented as a new “mas
sacre”. The committeeists who were captured for the actions of the Armenians were released again with the help of the major states. The rebellion of Zeytun, the Sultan II of the Ottoman Bank occupation, was the first of its life. The ringleaders of the assassination attempt on Abdulhamit were excluded from the Ottoman lands as a result of the interventions of the great states of the time. These committees then returned to ottoman territory to commit new murders.
According to the Britis
h Salname of 1917, there are 1,056,000 Armenians in Anatolia. Looking at other foreign sources about the Armenian population in Anatolia, the rhetoric of “1.5 million Armenians were killed” is completely inconsistentAccording to dif
ferent sources, the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire is as follows:
|Patriarchate||1.780.000 – 3.000.000|
|Hovanisyan||1.500.000 – 2.000.000|
|Walker||1.500.000 – 2.000.000|
|Ravenstein||7600,000 (Asian Turkey)|
|Ottoman Resources||1.160.000 – 1.300.000|
The figure of 3,000,000, which the Patriarchate put forward at the Berlin Conference, was never repeated by the Patriarchate again. The patriarchate’s subsequent figure is 1,780,000. Even if this figure is reduced, the patriarch’s opinion that independent Armenia will be established should be exaggerated, especially in 6 provinces. In a letter sent by Patriarch Nerses to the British sefir on 24 June 1880, the number of Muslim houses should be calculated as a family of up to 3-8 people, and as about 60 people in each house belonging to armenians. to calculate. In 1900, Tournebize gave the armenian nation in the whole of Turkey to 1,300,000. In the 1913 work “Les Reformes en Turquie d’ Asie”, L. De Contension stated that according to the latest statistics of the period, there were 1,150,000 Armenians in Anatolia and 250,000 armenians in Rumelia. L. de Contenson also gave the Armenian population around the world at 3,100,000 . Even in the Caucasus region, it accounts for only 20% of the region’s population, with 959,371. L. de Contenson’s 1913 figure 3,100,000, hadisyan’s 1930 book “The Birth and Development of the Armenian Republic” in Athens, the armenian population of the whole world for that day, the Armenians “1.5 million Armenians were killed” makes the claim completely inconsistent.In 1896, th
e Ottoman population statistics are around 1,160,000, as mentioned above. Considering that the Armenians who were excluded from the census for tax evasion were around 150,000, the figures of the Ottoman Empire were on average 1896, since the Ottomans did not do this census by wandering around the house as in today’s conditions. 1,300,000 in the year. In the 1923 book “The Rebirth of Turkey”, published in New York, signed by Clair Price, the Armenian population was shown in Egypt, Europe and the United States, 1.5 million in the Ottoman Empire, about 1 million in Russia, 150,000 tran, 250,000 in Egypt, Eur
ope and the United States. Stanford J. Shaw, who approached the issue with both Ottoman and western sources, compared to 12,585,950 Muslims in the Ottoman Empire in 1890. 1,162,853 Armenians compared to 14,111,945 Muslims in 1897; 1,140,563 Armenians were 15th in 1914, compared to 15,518,478 Muslims in 1906. He wrote that there were 1,229,007 Armenian populations against 044,846 Muslims.
1914 Official Statistics
|1393 Sultan in Addy, 1422 Sultan II.||560.434||205.752||82.880|
According to the above statistic, the population of Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire in 1914 was 1,234,671. Many western and Armenian writers have also yielded figures close to this.
1914 -1923 TURK-ERMENI RELATIONS The
General Situation Before the Decree of Referral and Settlement dated
May 27, 1915 The start of the First World War and the ottoman state’s war against the Islamic State in November 1914 against the Islamic State is a great deal of time for the Armenians was seen as an opportunity. As Louse Nalbandian points out, “The best time to start an all-out uprising for Armenian committees that will carry out the ivedi targets was when the Ottomans were at war.” Suspected of operating the Committees in the First World War, the Ottoman Government held a meeting with Tashnak executives in Erzurum in August 1914, before the war, and at this meeting, The Tashnaks are loyal if the Ottoman Empire went to war as citizens, the Ottoman armies have promised to carry out their duties in the ranks. They did not fulfill these promises, because before this meeting, it was decided to continue the fight against the Ottoman Empire at the Tashnak Congress held in Erzurum again in June. The Arm
enians of Russia began preparations to attack the Ottoman Empire with the Russian military, between Eçmiazin Katogikosu and Caucasian Governor Vranzof – Dashof, “Russia’s implementation of the ottoman state for armenians In return, an agreement was reached to support Russia unconditionally by the Armenians of Russia, Katogikos, which was later adopted by the Tsar in Tbilisi and told the Tsar that “the liberation of armenians in Anatolia is only separated from Turkish sovereignty. they constitute an autonomous Armenia and this may be possible under the auspices of Russia.” Russia’s intention is to annex Eastern Anatolia using armenians. Upon Russia’s declaration of war against the Ottoman Empire, the Tashnak Committee published the following statement: “
The Armenians stood by the Islamic State without any hesitation, and gave all their power to Russia’s command, they also constituted voluntary regiments.” The Tashnak Committee
also instructed the organization: “When the Russi
ans cross the border and the Ottoman armies begin to retreat, riots should be issued everywhere, and the Ottoman armies should be taken between the two fires in this way. If the Ottoman armies advance, Armenian soldiers will leave their continents with their weapons and form gangs and unite with the Russians.” “By p
articipating in the fight with all the power of the Committee, it is in alliance with the Allied States of The Alliance and especially Russia, with all means to ensure victory in Armenia, Kilikya, the Caucasus and Azerbaijan. He said he would help their state.” Papazyan, who served a
s the Van mebusin in the Ottoman Assembly, issued a statement, saying, “The preparation of voluntary Armenian regiments in the Caucasus, the leaders of the Russian Armies, discussed key points in the regions where the Armenians lived. and to be immediately joined by the Armenian regiments that will advance in anatolian territ
ory.” All orders were fulfilled, under the leadership of the voluntary regiments of Russian forces, ottoman and Russian Armenians, the Armenians in the Ottoman army, who were in the Ottoman army, fled with their weapons and fled the Russian they have joined forces. Some Armenians, who have not yet reached the Russian army, rebelled by forming gangs. For years, weapons stored in both Armenian and missionary schools and churches were uncovered, and new weapons were provided by printing military branches. Armed Armenian gangs attacked Turkish cities, towns and villages that were left vulnerable because the men were on the front lines, on the orders of the committees to “kill your neighbor first”. The Armenians who shot the Ottoman forces from behind prevented the Ottoman troops from campaigning, intercepted the supply routes, ambushed convoys carrying wounded, destroyed bridges and roads, and rioted in the cities where they were located and carried out the Russian occupation. they have made it easier. The persecution of Armenian volunteer regiments in the ranks of Russian forces has been so severe that the Russian command has felt compelled to remove some Armenian troops from the front line and send them back to the lines. The memorabilia written by some of the officers in the Russian army at the time bears witness to this persecution with all its c
larity. With the declaration of the mobilization, the Armenians, both in and out of the Ottoman ground, acted immediately and in gangs in the Caucasus and in many parts of Anatolia , hundreds of thousands of Muslims — aged, children, women, they began to systematically slaughter the wounded returning from the frontline. They did not hesitate to kill Armenians who did not participate in these activities and other non-Turkish elements. Thus, zeytun (Suleymanlı – Maraş), Bitlis, Kayseri, Trabzon, Ankara, Sivas, Adana, Urfa, Izmit – Adapazari, Hüdavendigar (Bursa), Musa Mountain and many other places engaged in great massacre movements.
May 27, 1915 The Events That Led to the Exit of The Dispatch
and Settlement Karan The Ottoman State entered the First World War as an ally of Germany, and riots and measures organized by Armenian committees in almost all regions of Anatolia were carried out before/after it was declared a mobilization on August 3, 1914. During this period (1914-1915) the rebels and measures carried out by the Armenians are:-In January
1914, the Kayseri Armenian uprisings organized by Hinçak and Tashnak organizations were organized. During the uprisings, terrorist activities were carried out by Armenians against the people and soldiers in various ways. Bomb manufacturing houses were detected during these incidents. During the searches carried out by the government, many weapons, ammunition, dynamite, instruction, declarations were seized in Armenian homes, cemeteries, communities, churches, schools, and many Armenians were caught red-handed.
-The Armenian people of Zeytun, where the riots are seen in almost every critical period, have risen as soon as the mobilization is announced. The committees are supported by Russia and France each time, and the World War Iii. The Armenians of the region, which was declared “République de Zeitoun” by Napoleon, had already completed all preparations, and on August 3, 1914, the armenians and their officers were formed by the Armenians of Zeytun. They applied to the authorities to establish an “Armenian Regiment”, and when they rejected these requests, they rebelled and began to commit massacres in the sur
rounding area.-Since early 1914, armenians had been preparing for an organized uprising. One of the places is si de Van Province. Van province is the most obvious sighting of the armenian activities in Anatolia. The work of the committees here revealed its Armenian activities for Turkey with all its nudity. Because the Armenian schemes, which remain hidden in other provinces, have emerged in a public way here. Especially the claims that have been carried to the world by Armenians at regular intervals for the last thirty-five to four decades are refuting the Armenian events in Van. The Van rebellion was one of the most important reasons for the “Referral and Settlement” decision by the Ottoman Government on May 27, 1915, about a month and a half before the “Dispatch and settlement” decision, about a month and a half ago, 15 April 1915 even the Turks have come out, grew up in their history, and even the Turks remained in a difficult situation. Van Governor Cevdet Bey, the Russians are heading towards Van in the direction of Baskale and approximately 15 May in Van, estimated that they will enter Van from May 14, van to Bitlis direction has ordered the withdrawal. On May 15th, Armenians within the Russian army and about 35,000-40,000 Armenians in Van province met, more than 20,000 Turks were massacred in the city, and new Armenian prefects were elected to the new Van governor’s office, Aram Manukyan. has been sent. However, the “Decision of Dispatch and Settlement” was the natural result of factors such as this and so on may 27, 1915 by the Ottoman
State, which was in war. May 1915 is one of the events that led to the decision of the Referral and Settlement. In Parallel with the Russians’ advance from the east to Turkish territory in Bitlis, they have engaged in massacres against local people since January 1915. Before May 27, 1915 alone, 7,000 Armenians were initially armed in and around Mus, and they were distributed in groups to villages. These included deserters, Armenians, especially in Sasun, young people of military age who entered these gang groups directly. Ottoman officers who went to the region to recruit for the Ottoman army were killed. Similarly, 500 Armenian weapons were seized in Diyarbakir under the name “Dam Battalion”. Also in Diyarbakir on April 12-14, over 60 bombs were seized in the provincial center, many dynamite capsules, plenty of dynamite suppositories, dynamite gunpowder, hundreds of mavzers, manliher and shinayder were seized in the center of the province. Although many Armenian dignitaries in Elazig have instructed government officials that they “did not possess any weapons on and at home” in the district, more than 5,000 weapons were carried out in the district center alone. Around 300 bombs, 40kg of bomb fuse, 200 packets of dynamite and 5,000 dynamite marbles were found. These weapons and explosives are enough to blow up the whole city. As the Russians began to cross the border and began to move forward, the Armenians of Elazığ engaged in mass murder movements against the Turkish people in prov
inces, towns and villages.-Before May 27, 1915, in Erzurum, Sivas, Trabzon, Ankara, Adana, Urfa, Armenian rebellion and terror incidents took place in Izmit and Adapazan, Hudavendigar (Bursa), Musa Mountain, Izmir, Istanbul, Maraş, Antep, Aleppo and ma
ny other places. After all these developments, the Ottoman Empire, which is already in an extraordinary situation like war and is fighting on several fronts at the same time, is forced to betray the state in order to secure itself within its territory. for the purpose of the Referral and Settlement.
27 May 1915 The Removal and Implementation of the Decision on Referral and
Settlement, even in the face of the riots and massacres that have killed thousands of Turks, is fixed by the calm and discreet attitude put forward by the Ottoman Government with its documents. However, when the terrorist movements could not stop, the government had to take Armenians living in various parts of the country to new settlements away from war zones. The relocation of Armenians in the areas that form the security line of the Caucasian, Iranian and Sinai fronts is not to destroy them, but to ensure state security, to protect them, and is the most successful relocation application in the world. The decision to relocate was not applied to all Armenians. Armenians serving in the ottoman army in the classrooms of officers and medics, and armenians working in the Branches of the Ottoman Bank and some consulates were not migrated as long as they remained loyal to the state. On the other hand, sick, disabled and elderly and orph
aned children and widows were not subjected to enthusiasm, orphanages and villages were protected and their needs were met by the state, immigrant allowance. This table is very important for the Ottoman Empire to show its good will for relocation .within the framework of the relocat
ion law dated May 27, 1915 and the orders issued under this law; The Armenians, who were removed from the islamic state of Erzurum, Van and Bitlis, were removed from the southern part of Mosul, the banner of Zor and Urfa; The Armenians, who were removed from the vicinity of Adana, Aleppo and Maraş, were transported to the eastern part of Syria and the eastern and southeast of Aleppo. Meanwhile, as the Armenians have often stated, 1.5 million Armenians were not killed during the relocation. Statistics of both Ottoman and Armenian and foreign countries show that the population of Armenians living in Ottoman territory during the First World War was approximately 1,250,000. How many Armenians were removed from their location within the framework of the relocation application and how many reached new settlements safely are also in the middle of the documents. The last population statistics of the Ottoman Empire were conducted in 1914. Accordingly, the Armenian population is 1,234,671. The population that is not subject to displaced; 82,880 were in Istanbul, 60,119 in Bursa, 4,548 in Kutahya Banner and 20,237 in Aydin province. The relocation of the Armenians was carried out in great discipline. From June 9, 1915 to February 8, 1916, a total of 391,040 people from Adana, Ankara, Dörtyol, Eskisehir, Aleppo, Izmit, Karahisarı sahib, Kayseri, Mamuretülaziz, Sivas, Trabzon, Yozgat, Kutahya and Birecik will be relocated to new regions where they will be located. of these, 356,084 have reached residential areas. The remaining 35,000 figures did not include the Armenian population in Aleppo. When the 26,064 Armenian populations in Aleppo, which are subject to displacement, are removed from 35,000, there are 9,000 to 10,000 left. These were not killed by the Turks, 500 of them by bandits between Erzurum and Erzincan; Around 2,000 people were killed by Urban bandits in The Meskene on the road from Urfa to Aleppo; 2000 people were killed by bandit in Mardin. About 5,000 to 6,000 people were killed as a result of attacks by the locals. However, the exact figures of this are not included in the Ottoman archives. The remaining 3,000 Armenians were scattered across Anatolia during the shipment. Thus, there is not a single Armenian killed by the Ottoman army for genocide during the relocation. Furthermore, the number of Armenians displaced from various regions of Anatolia and Rumelia, and the number of those who reached new settlements, to each other, to prove that there were no involvement during relocation of the On the other hand, during the transfer of Armenians under the application of relocation of the Ottoman Empire, despite the harsh conditions of war, this effort was determined by foreign diplomats. One of the most important issues to consider here is, of course, the security of the Armenians referred to.
If the measures taken during the relocation are summarized, the armenians will be relieved and secured during the journey. A loan has been allocated to settle in. Pregnant women, patients, cripples and those who look after them have been left off duty. Orphanages were opened in Lebanon, Urfa, Damascus. The best care needs of Armenian children who were orphans and orphans were carried out in these orphanages. For the purpose of helping the roads, the centers of the fire have been opened. Regulations for movable – immovable goods have been announced and secured. Local managers have been held responsible for all kinds of situations, and those who have been neglected have been punished. Inspectors have been sent to the relocation districts. The
government has made large expenditures on the protection and protection of migrants. The documents belonging to the application provide detailed information about which provinces and districts where hospitals are established, and which building is separated for orphans from Armenian children. If the Ottoman Empire wanted to get rid of the Armenian tebaa, it could easily do so under the conditions of war. However, the Armenians, who were placed in new areas, survived their lives safely, while the Armenians who fought against the Turks in the ranks of the Russian army died as a result of the conditions of war. As you can see, the relocation application is usually a successful referral and settlement movement.
1917 -1918 Armenian massacre movements against the Turkish people in AnatoliaThe outbr
eak of the 1917 revolution in Russia has created a dissolution in the Russian armies, and the event on the front (in Eastern Anatolia) has passed to armenians and Georgians. During this period, armenian massacresprees began in many parts of Anatolia. Erzincan, Bayburt, Erzu
rum, Kars under the leadership of Armenian committeeists such as Sivaslı Murat, Who carried out the massacre against turks in Shebinkarahisar before the First World War, Antranik, who gained notoriety as the Sasun Monster, and Arşak, who carried out the Mus massacre in many places, such as massacres. Muslim people in the region are now in danger of extinction because Russian officers have lost their activities. “The Commander of the Ottoman Caucasian Armies, by applying to the Russian Commander, the lives, property and rape of the occupied Ottoman people are subjected to rape. In order to prevent this, he asked for a “wire call” dated December 24, 1917 and telegraph 7312 and did not receive an answer, this time he applied to the Commander of the Caucasian-Russian armies. However, while the correspondence continued, the gangmaker was assigned to Erzurum Central Command in the uniform of the Russian General of Antranik. The Armenians, who were operating in the Russian-occupied region, killed children who had not yet been weaned, hurt pregnant women’s bellies, burned Muslims alive, tortured their daughters. In the only way, more than 800 bodies were found in Erzincan, the people of many villages collectively folded. The vulnerable civilian population slain in Bayburt, Mamahatun (Tercan) Erzurum and surrounding villages has been horrifically carne
d. During the armenian massacres against the Turkish people, 2127 male bodies were found in Erzurum alone, 250 bodies killed with axes and bayonets in Kars Kapi, and a total of more than 8000 bodies were identified. In Erzurum, the marketplace was completely burned, vulnerable people were stuffed into buildings and buildings were set on fire by armenians. Hasankale has been completely burned. In Hasankale, armenians have folded over 3000 Hasan
kaleli.Harbord, who came to Anatolia in 1919, found that the situation was not as the Armenians described. Harbord met with Armenians, especially those living in Erzurum, asking if there was any massacre against them, but the Armenians told Harbord that there was no such incident, through Armenian interpreters in his caravan. . Harbord saw the remains of the massacre by Armenians in and around Erzurum with his own eyes and found that 43 villages were destroyed by armenians in Hasankale alone. In the east, alm
ost all of them were subjected to Armenian massacres, including towns and villages of places such as Erzincan, Bayburt, Trabzon, Erzurum, Kars, Van. T
he massacres of Armenians against Turks took place in Adana, Urfa, Antep, Maraş, Bitlis and many other provinces and towns in the Southeast Anatolia region under the auspices and support of the French and The British. In Adana, Fog and Osmaniye alone, the villages on SO were destroyed by the Armenians.
3. The Turkish army, led by Army Commander Vehip Pasha, rescued Erzincan on February 13th, Trabzon on February 24th, Erzurum on March 12, Hasankale on March 13, Sarikamis on April 5, Van on April 2nd, Batumi on April 14 and Kars on April 25. As a result of the advanced operation of the Turkish army, the destruction of all the people of the region by the Armenians was prevented to some extent. Brest – The Treaty of Litovsk was returned to the Ottoman Empire in 3 Eastern provinces, followed by the Independent Republic of Armenia on May 28, 1918 in the Caucasus region, the ancestral homeland of the Turks.
THE Treaty of Sevr, which was
drafted for the liquidation of the Ottoman Empire and was signed in 1920, gave much of Eastern Anatolia to the Republic of Armenia. However, the Government of Ankara, which is now dominating Anatolia, has not accepted this. The big states, too, were the architects of Sevr, but did not want to take a de facto role in its implementation and to engage in military action in particular. In this case, the work fell to the Republic of Armenia to realize the dream of Sevr. The attack of Armenian forces was stopped by the Turkish army under the command of Kazım Karabekir. Turkish forces liberated Sarikamis on September 29, 1920 and Kars on October 30th. Customs was taken on November 7. Yerevan’s fall has been at stake. However, the Armenians accepted all Turkish demands and signed the Treaty of Customs on December 3, 1920. This treaty has drawn the borders of today’s Turkey-Armenia. In addition, the Armenians accepted the invalidity of Sevr. Armenia was soon joined by the Soviet Union and Turkey resolved border problems with the Treaty of Kars on 13 October 1921 with the Soviets and the States of Moscow and the Caucasus on 16 March 1921.
During the negotiation
s in Lausanne, armenians described the myriad services they had done to the States of Revelism in the war and the losses and sacrifices they have made for this purpose, and a place that includes the Anatolian lands of Sevr. They have implemented a policy of repression on the Armenian cause, noting that it envisages Armenia. France, Italy and the United States, especially In Great Britain, did not support a settlement under the name of “Armenian Homeland”. The Russians have suggested that the Armenians who want it can come to Russia or Ukraine. The Turkish delegation reminded that the improvement of the fates of The Turkish minorities depends on the cessation of all kinds of foreign interventions and provocations, if turkey does not have any land to be given from its homeland, if In the case of giving dormitories to Armenians, he has made it clear decisively that there are states with very large lands that can give them a home. Essentially, if the Turkish delegation insisted on the “Armenian Homeland”, the negotiations were ordered to be cut. Therefore, there are no special provisions concerning Armenians in the Treaty of Lausanne signed on July 24, 1923. 31 of them. the people of turkey who left Turkey with article 10 000 people were given the opportunity to choose Turkish citizenship within two years, so that those who left the Armenians could return to Turkey
. 6. The amnesty declaration. and to bring together families scattered with the article and to meet legitimate rights holders. 65. When the war began, the goods of those of foreign nationality were confiscated. 95. a specific application period has been recognized in the
article. How to liquidate Ottoman debts 46 – 63. indicated in the articles. With the Treaty of Lausanne signed on July 24, 1923, the Armenian issue has
become an event outside Turkey’s borders. Thus, Turkey has established normal diplomatic relations with the countries it has fought for years. By 1925, the United States was the only country where Turkey did not have normal relations. The re-establishment and return of Turkish-American relations, which was cut in 1917, was the end of 1927. Diplomatic relations between Turkey and the United States, which have never fought each other before, have been severed for a decade. This is mainly due to anti-Turkey campaigns carried out by Armenian groups and supporters in the United States. Bilateral talks were held between Turkish and American officials during the Lausanne Peace talks in 1923, and on August 6, 1923, two weeks after the signing of the Peace Treaty, turkish-American bilateral agreements were signed.In 1923, two Turkish-American bilateral agreements
were signed with the United States. The treaty was signed. The first is friendship and trade, and the second is the Treaty of Extradition of Criminals. However, the signing of these treaties has alarmed American Armenians, especially in the United States, and they have launched a very comprehensive campaign with the slogan “No to Lausanne Anthrush”. During the year, the “American Committee for the Independence of Armenia” (American Committee for the Independence of Armenia), which took a hostile stance against And led to it, changed its name to “Against the Treaty of Lausanne.” The American Committee has been named “Opposed to the Lausanne Treaty.” The Lausanne Treaty debate sparked by campaigns that began in 1923 and was intensely conducted until the end of 1926, and finally on January 18, 1927, the American Senate rejected the
Lausanne Treaty.No to the Lausanne Anthrush in the United States in 1923. campaigned between 1923 and 1965. Although the silence prevailed in Armenian Propaganda during these years, it has been a period that cannot be considered passive. Among the dates mentioned, 34 organizations and hundreds of related offices in various states of the United States, excluding schools and churches, have continued to carry out work against Turkey. Between 1923 and 1965, the differences between Tashnaksutyun, Hmçak and Eçmiyazin, who served on behalf of Armenians scattered throughout the world with Armenians in Soviet Armenia, showed themselves and struggled between them. However, they then began to defend the same thesis on a number of issues in the combat programs. Between 1923 and 1965, the following were the points they
merged with: -To consolidate the economy and culture of the Soviet Armenian Republic in
a separate way from the inside regime, -The national feelings, religion, culture and to maintain a
nd maintain their goals,-to maintain armenian desires and assertions in European states and the League of Nation
s, and to seize every opportunity for it, both in Armenia and throughout the world, and to provide charities for immigrants and to have support for them in almost everything.
In the struggle of Tashnak, Hinçak and Eçmiyazin, it was common for the Armenians, who were previously scattered around the world, and there were Armenians who were concerned about it. As with those who want to turn completely towards Russia by claiming that there is no longer support from Europe, it is argued that the second will not benefit the Armenians, as in the first of repeating terrorist movements in Russia, as in the Ottoman Empire. there have been some of the last. Such contradiction and undecided situation was expressed by Armenia’s first prime minister, Hovhannes Katchaznouni: “
A small community between Araks and Sevan is independent, but indeed an autonomous province of Russia. No more Armenian homelands, no government nor an international Armenian problem in Eastern Anatolia, this problem is completely closed in Lausanne. There are no more Armenians in the eastern provinces of Turkey, and it will not happen after that. The Turks closed their doors tightly. We don’t have the force to force and open it, and we’re a population of close to a million. Within the borders of the Armenian Republic. More than a million are also out there and scattered in various places. Few armenians living outside may come to the territory of the Armenian Republic. Because first the region is very narrow, then they trade where they are, they can’t live in Armenia. At a glance, though, we can come to a conclusion that Armenians living outside are not useful to us. They are increasingly like the stepson of our Republic. Tashnaksagan committeeists originally docked for the revolutionary Bolsheviks to work together, but did not see any closeness from the otuar. In Russia, in the Tsarist governments, in the Ottoman Empire, we were not put behind by the sultan’s governments and our actions were not taken into consideration? Can’t we do what we’ve done in Turkey for years now in the Republic of Armenia? Of course, we can do this: we can build a home in Montenegro, Iran, and then we can put people and weapons across the Aras river; We can create secret interests, we can hide armed gangs. We can afford to rebel and kill the Communists there, in the Sunik or Tarlakyazı Mountains, in the Mountains of Sasun, in the hilltops of Şatak and in the difficult places to go here; Then we perform noisy demonstrations and even Yerevan invade any official apartment in a few hours, as we once seized the Ottoman Bank in Istanbul, blow up one or another apartment, and commit massacres that commit personal terrors that set up an organization. We can kill in a few Bolshes, just like we killed the Sultan and the Tsar’s men. We can apply the same thing to the Russian rulers like the bombs we dropped on Sultan Hamid in Yildiz. But for what purpose are we going to do all
this for? When we did these actions in the Ottoman Empire, we knew that we would draw the friendly attention of the great European states and get involved for us, and now there is no involvement in such a business, it has no significance, and to experiments like this. We don’t need to get into it If the Allied States have not helped us with the issues we want from Turkey, if they can’t, we need to understand that they will no longer want to do more. He can’t help us in Russia now. That’s why we have to leave it to Russia. In fact, if the Bolsheviks had not invaded Armenia, we would have to call them “As the fi
rst Armenian Prime Minister Katchaznouni stated, the Armenians who were drawn to their shells after the First World War entered into new expectations after the Second World War/ order. As during the Lausanne Conference, they sent letters, telegrams to their former supporters and tried to take advantage of opportunities that could arise. To this end, on September 23, 1944, the UsPresident truman sent new letters to British Foreign Minister Bevin on February 25, 1946, and the USSR, the UsA and The British Foreign Ministries (29 March 1946) gave a memorandum to Stalin again 24 They sent a telegram in April 1945 and submitted two memorandums to the conference in San Francisco, one on May 7, 1945, and the other on June 13, 1945. On May 29, 1945, the Armenian Immigrants Assembly gave a memorandum to four elders in Paris with the signatures of presidents A. Çorbaciyan and H. Samuel. On May 28, 1945, he sent a telegram to churchill, stalin and truman, the former Prime Minister of the Armenian Republic in Egypt. On September 6, 1945, Twentieth leader J. Missokian gave a memorandum to the Fives Conference in London. In December 1945, the new Armenian Katagikosu personally addressed the Conference of Foreign Ministers in Moscow, saying that “the elimination of the injustices suffered by Armenians during the First World War and the periods of Armenians outside Armenia to the home
land “supply” requested. These activities carried out in all countries where armenians live, in Tharassian’s words, this new leap, and new applications to international organizations, were supported by Soviet media and broadcasters and signed by Russia for 20 years. With the end of the December 1925 Turkish-Soviet Friendship and Aggression Pact, it was agreed with Russia’s demands for concessions and land from the Straits and Eastern Anatolia. In this and subsequent applications, the Armenians, as they did during the First World War, although the wind team stormed, the Armenian issue again brought the world public. In 1915, the Armenians described the 1915 ship and settlement event as a major genocide disaster, choosing a way to unite the Armenian people around it.